by Jiddu Krishnamurti
What do we mean by fear? Fear of what? There are various types
of fear and we need not analyse every type. But we can see that
fear comes into being when our comprehension of relationship is
not complete. Relationship is not only between people but between
ourselves and nature, between ourselves and property, between ourselves
and ideas; as long as that relationship is not fully understood,
there must be fear. Life is relationship. To be is to be related
and without relationship there is no life. Nothing can exist in
isolation; so long as the mind is seeking isolation, there must
be fear. Fear is not an abstraction; it exists only in relation
The question is, how to be rid of fear? First of all, anything that is overcome has to be conquered again and again. No problem can be finally overcome, conquered; it can be understood but not conquered. They are two completely different processes and the conquering process leads to further confusion, further fear. To resist, to dominate, to do battle with a problem or to build a defence against it is only to create further conflict, whereas if we can understand fear, go into it fully step by step, explore the whole content of it, then fear will never return in any form.
As I said, fear is not an abstraction; it exists only in relationship.
What do we mean by fear? Ultimately we are afraid, are we not, of
not being, of not becoming. Now, when there is fear of not being,
of not advancing, or fear of the unknown, of death, can that fear
be overcome by determination, by a conclusion, by any choice? Obviously
not. Mere suppression, sublimation, or substitution, creates further
resistance, does it not? Therefore fear can never by overcome through
any form of discipline, through any form of resistance. That fact
must be clearly seen, felt and experienced: fear cannot be overcome
through any form of defence or resistance nor can there be freedom
from fear through the search for an answer or through mere intellectual
or verbal explanation.
Now what are we afraid of? Are we afraid of a fact or of an idea about the fact? Are we afraid of the thing as it is, or are we afraid of what we think it is? Take death, for example. Are we afraid of the fact of death or of the idea of death? The fact is one thing and the idea about the fact is another. Am I afraid of the word 'death' or of the fact itself? Because I am afraid of the word, of the idea, I never understand the fact, I never look at the fact, I am never in direct relation with the fact. It is only when I am in complete communion with the fact that there is no fear. If I am not in communion with the fact, then there is fear, and there is no communion with the fact so long as I have an idea, an opinion, a theory, about the fact, so I have to be very clear whether I am afraid of the word, the idea or of the fact. If I am face to face with the fact, there is nothing to understand about it: the fact is there, and I can deal with it. If I am afraid of the word, then I must understand the word, go into the whole process of what the word, the term, implies.
For example, one is afraid of loneliness, afraid of the ache, the
pain of loneliness. Surely that fear exists because one has never
really looked at loneliness, one has never been in complete communion
with it. The moment one is completely open to the fact of loneliness
one can understand what it is, but one has an idea, an opinion about
it, based on previous knowledge; it is this idea, opinion, this
previous knowledge about the fact, that creates fear. Fear
is obviously the outcome of naming, of terming, of projecting a
symbol to represent the fact; that is fear is not independent of
the word, of the term.
I have a reaction, say, to loneliness; that is I say I am afraid of being nothing. Am I afraid of the fact itself or is that fear awakened because I have previous knowledge of the fact, knowledge being the word, the symbol, the image? How can there be fear of a fact? When I am face to face with a fact, in direct communion with it, I can look at it, observe it; therefore there is no fear of the fact. What causes fear is my apprehension about the fact, what the fact might be or do.
It is my opinion, my idea, my experience, my knowledge about the
fact, that creates fear. So long as there is verbalization of the
fact, giving the fact a name and therefore identifying or condemning
it, so long as thought is judging the fact as an observer, there
must be fear. Thought is the product of the past, it can only exist
through verbalization, through symbols, through images; so long
as thought is regarding or translating the fact, there must be fear.
Thus it is the mind that creates fear, the mind being the process of thinking. Thinking is verbalization. You cannot think without words, without symbols, images; these images, which are the prejudices, the previous knowledge, the apprehensions of the mind, are projected upon the fact, and out of that there arises fear. There is freedom from fear only when the mind is capable of looking at the fact without translating it, without giving it a name, a label. This is quite difficult, because the fealings, the reactions, the anxieties that we have, are promptly identified by the mind and given a word. The feeling of jealousy is identified by that word. Is it possible not to identify a feeling, to look at that feeling without naming it? It is the naming of the feeling that gives it continuity, that gives it strength. The moment you give a name to that which you call fear, you strengthen it; but if you can look at that feeling without terming it, you will see that it withers away. Therefore if one would be completely feree of fear it is essential to understand this whole process of terming, of projecting symbols, images, giving names to facts. There can be freedom from fear only when there is self-knowledge. Self-knowledge is the beginning of wisdom, which is the ending of fear.
excerpt from The First & Last Freedom
"Fear can only exist in relationship;
fear cannot exist by itself, in isolation. There is no such
thing as abstract fear; there is fear of the known or the unknown,
fear of what one has done or what one may do; fear of the past or
of the future. The relationship between what one is and what one
desires to be causes fear. Fear arises when one interprets the fact
of what one is in terms of reward and punishment. Fear comes with
responsibility and the desire to be free from it. There is fear
in the contrast between pain and pleasure. Fear exists in the conlflict
of the opposites. The worship of success brings the fear of failure.
Fear is the process of the mind in the struggle of becoming. In
becoming good, there is the fear of evil; in becoming good, there
is the fear of evil; in becoming complete, there is the fear of
loneliness; in becoming great, there is the fear of being small.
Comparison is not understanding; it is prompted by fear of the unkonwn
in relation to the known. Fear is uncertainty in search of security.
The effort to become is the beginning of fear, the fear of being or not being. The mind, the residue of experience, is always in fear of the unnamed, the challenge. The mind, which is name, word, memory, can function only within the field of the know; and the unknown, which is challenge from moment to moment, is resisted or translated by the mind in terms of the known. This resistance or translation of the challenge is fear; for the mind can have no communion with the unknown. The known cannot commune with the unknown; the known must cease for the unknown to be.
The mind is the maker of fear; and when it analyses fear, seeking its cause in order to be free from it, the mind only further isolates itself and thereby increases fear. When you use analysis to resist confusion, you are increasing the power of resistance; and resistanc eof confusion only increases the fear of it, which hinders freedom. In communion there is freedom, but not in fear."
excerpt from Commentaries On Living, First Series